Sero-prevalence of Toxoplasmosis in patients attending to Kassala Hospital, Kassala State 2016

  • Khadega suleiman
  • Azzam Afifi
Keywords: Sero, Prevalence, Toxoplasmosis, Kassala


Toxoplasmosis is intracellular pathogen, caused by the protozoan parasite, belong to the phylum Apicomplexa. The present research aimed to determine the sero-prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii among patients attending in Kassala hospital. Blood samples were collected in blood container by using sterile syringes (300), 5 ml of venous blood was drawn and required for the laboratory examination for Latex agglutination and ELISA techniques. high prevalence of T. gondii recorded (56.7%) for Latex Agglutination technique. Age-groups (18-40) showed higher rate of infection 62.2%. Statistical analysis verified no variation according to the gender and contact with cats (P > 0.05). high prevalence calculated, for those eating undercooked meat, drinking row milk, 67.1%, 65.5% respectively. Fainaly the present study recommended to Implantation of health education program, Toxoplasmosis should be checked before donating blood and Improvement of the standard of hygienic, sanitary and disease control.


Abdel-Hameed, A., (1991).Seo-epidemeology of toxoplasmosis in Gezira, Sudan.J.Trop.Med.Hyg, 94: 329-332.

Adnan, I., (1994). The Seo-epidemeology of human toxoplasmosis in Khartoum.M.Sc. Thesis, Faculty of Science- University of Khartoum.

Buffolano,W., R. E.Gilbret ,F. J. Holland,D.Fratt, F.Palumbo and A. E. Ades, (1996). Risk factors for recent toxoplasma infection in pregnant women in Naples Epidemi. Infect., 116:347-351.

Carter F, Fleck D (1966). The incidence of Toxoplasma antibodies in the Sudanese. Transactions of the Royal Soc. of Trop. Med. and Hyg.(60) :539 - 43. Control Disease Center Parasites – Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma infection) – Prevention & Control". Retrieved 13 March, (2013).

Dardé, ML; Ajzenberg, D; Smith, J (2011). "3 – Population structure and epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii". In Weiss, LM; Kim, K. Toxoplasma gondii: The Model Apicomplexan. Perspectives and Methods. London: Academic Press/Elsevier. pp. 49–80.

Dubey JP, Jones JL (September 2008). "Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans and animals in the United States". International J.l for Parasitology38 (11): 1257–78.

Falusi O, French AL, Seaberg EC, Tien PC, Watts DH, Minkoff H, Piessens E, Kovacs A, Anastos K, and Cohen MH, (2002). Prevalence and Predictors of Toxoplasma Seropositivity in Women with and at Risk for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection HIV/AIDS CID; 35 (1): 1414 –1417.

Han, K., D. Shin, T. Lee and Y. Lee, (2008). Sero-prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection and risk factors associated with seropositivity of pregnant women in Korea. J. Parasitol., 94:963-965.

Hill D, Dubey JP (2002). "Toxoplasma gondii: transmission, diagnosis and prevention". Clinical Microbiology and Infection: the Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 8 (10): 634–40.

Jones JL, Dubey JP (2012). "Foodborne toxoplasmosis". Clinical Infectious Diseases: an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 55 (6): 845–51.

Jones JL, Kruszon-Moran D, Wilson M, McQuillan G, Navin T, McAuley JB (2001). "Toxoplasma gondii infection in the United States: seroprevalence and risk factors". American J. of Epidemiology 154 (4): 357–65.

Khadega suleiman (2016): sero-prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in patients attending to Kassala hospitals, PhD thesis, Omdurman Islamic University.

Khalil M, Aziz A Ahmed and Intisar E. Elrayah(2012). Prevalence and risk factors for T. gondii infection in humans from Khartoum State, Sudan International J of Tropical Medicine 7(4): 143-150.

Khalil M, Petr K, Alia B, Marek M, EL Taib G, Ali A, Intisar E (2009). Immuno- diagnosis of latent toxoplasmosis in childbearing age women in rural areas in EL Geizera State, Sudan. Inter. Med. Med. Sci. 1(7): 272-77.

Montoya JG, Boothroyd JC, Kovaks JA. (2010). Toxoplasma gondii. In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, Editors, Principles and practice of infectious diseases, Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone. p. 3495-526

Nagaty IM, Ibrahim KM, Abdel-Tawab AH, Hassan AE, (2009). Diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii by ELISA and PCR mothers and their infants. J Egypt Soc Parasitol 39(2):625–632.

Nicolle C, Manceaux L, (1909). Sur un protozoaire nouveau du gondi. CR Acad Sci.;148:369.

Nijem KI, Al-Amleh S, (2009). Seroprevalence and associated risk factors of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Hebron district, Palestine. East Mediterr Health J 15(5):1278–1284.

Ryan KJ; Ray CG (editors) (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). McGraw Hill. pp. 723–7. ISBN 0838585299.

Salibay, C., J. Dungca and F. claveria, (2008). Serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii infection among Urban (Manila) and Suburban (Dasmarinas, cavite) residents, Philippines. J. Proto. Res., 18: 26-33.

Simpore J, Savadogo A, Ilboudo D, Nadambega M C, Esposito M, Yara J, Pignatelli S, Pietra V, Musumeci S.( 2006). Toxoplasma gondii, HCV, and HBV Seroprevalence and Co-Infection Among HIV-Positive and –Negative Pregnant Women in Burkina Faso. J. of Medical Virology; 78:730–733

Torda A (2001). "Toxoplasmosis are cats really the source?".AustFam Physician30 (8): 743–7. PMID 11681144. Transactions of the Royal Soc. of Trop. Med. and Hyg.(60) :539 - 43.