Journal of The Faculty of Science and Technology <p style="text-align: justify;">The journal of The Faculty of Science and Technology (JFST) is an open peer-reviewed journal which covers all aspects of Natural and Applied Science including Botany, Zoology, Biotechnology, Nutrition and Food Science, Chemistry, Geology, Mathematics, Physics, Astronomy and Meteorology. The journal will feature original research, reviews, editorials, case studies, brief communications , opinions and views. The journal publishes at least annually. Additional issues may be published for special events (e.g. Conferences) and when special themes are addressed.</p> Omdurman Islamic University en-US Journal of The Faculty of Science and Technology 1858-6007 On the Application of Homotopy Analysis Method to Fractional Differential Equations <p>In this paper, an attempt has been made to obtain the solution of linear and nonlinear fractional differential equations by applying an analytic technique, namely the homotopy analysis method (HAM). The fractional derivatives are described by Caputo’s sense. By this method, the solution considered as the sum of an infinite series, which converges rapidly to exact solution with the help of the nonzero convergence control parameter ℏ. Some examples are given to show the efficiently and accurate of this method. The solutions obtained by this method has been compared with exact solution. Also our graphical represented of the solutions have been given by using MATLAB software.</p> Khalid Suliman Aboodh Abu baker Ahmed Copyright (c) 2021-08-17 2021-08-17 7 1 18 10.52981/jfst.vi7.947 Group Classification Invariant Solutions of Burgers' Equation <p>The aims of the present paper is to solve the problem of the group classification of the general Burgers’ equation u_t=f(x,u) u_x^2+g(x,u)u_xx, where f and g are arbitrary smooth functions of the variables x and u, by using Lie method. The paper is one of the few applications of an algebraic approach to the problem of group classification: We followed the analysis mathematical method using the method of preliminary group classification. A number of new interesting nonlinear invariant models which have nontrivial invariance algebras are obtained. The result of the work is a wide class of equations summarized in table form.</p> Mohammed Adam Abdualah Khatir Mohammed Ali Basher Blegiss Abdulaziz Abdulrahman Ebyed Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of The Faculty of Science and Technology 2021-08-17 2021-08-17 7 19 32 10.52981/jfst.vi7.948 Existence of Limit Cycles for Liénard System with Application <p>This paper is part of a wider study limit cycle problems and planar system; The aims of this is to study the existence of limit cycle for Liénard system. We followed the historical analytical mathematical method to present a proof of a result on the existence of limit cycle for Liénard system form x ̇=y-F(x) ,<br>y ̇=-g(x)</p> Ali Bakur Barsham ALmurad Elamin Mohammed Saeed Ali Copyright (c) 2021-08-17 2021-08-17 7 33 37 10.52981/jfst.vi7.950 Limit Cycle Problem for Quadratic System with some Applications of a Class I <p>This paper is part of a wider study limit cycle problems of a class and planar system; we study the existence of limit cycle for polynomial planar system. In this paper, we present a proof of a result on the existence of limit cycle of the Quadratic System:&nbsp;</p> Ali Bakur Barsham ALmurad Elamin Mohammed Saeed Ali Copyright (c) 2021-08-17 2021-08-17 7 38 44 10.52981/jfst.vi7.951 The Effect of Solar Radiation and Temperature on Solar Cell Performance in Khartoum state <p>In this paper, the performance of solar cells was studied and evaluated . The role of several effects for operation condition such as temperature, sunlight intensity on the solar cells output parameters has been studied. Experimental results showed that relationship between the amount of solar cell output parameters variations such as maximum output power, open circuit voltage, short circuit current, and efficiency in terms of temperature and light intensity.</p> <p>The measurements were carried out for the intensity of solar radiation in Khartoum area in Sudan, from February month to April month which records the solar radiation in W/m<sup>2</sup>, The results were collected from 10 Am to 4 pm, three days per week, data were averaged and also illustrated in the form of graphs of solar radiation as a function of the time of the day.</p> <p>The operating temperature plays a key role in the photovoltaic conversion process. Both the electrical efficiency and the power output of the solar cell depend on the operating temperature. Solar cell performance decreases with increasing temperature.</p> Wail Hessen ALawad ALHessen Abdelnabe Ali Elamin Ali Mohammed Habib Ahmed El_kanzi Copyright (c) 2021-08-17 2021-08-17 7 45 55 10.52981/jfst.vi7.952 Neyo: A katabatic dry wind <p>The objective of this study is to explain how the Neyo wind stream develops and how it can damage crops and endanger people’s lives in the Darfur Region of Sudan. Due to lack of official meteorological observations, the data was retrieved from NOAA Air Resources Laboratory (ARL) used by the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT). Three scenarios for katabatic flow were formulated. Forces acting on air parcels were calculated for different slope angles. HYSPLIT vertical soundings revealed a reservoir of dry air over the area. Air parcels moving down slope allow dry air to flow across the thermal inversion layer. Due to the moisture deficit between the down flowing air and the humid grass surface, the leaves get dehydrated.</p> Hassan Addom Ammar Gaber Abulgasim Idris Copyright (c) 2021-08-17 2021-08-17 7 56 68 10.52981/jfst.vi7.954 Sero-prevalence of Toxoplasmosis in patients attending to Kassala Hospital, Kassala State 2016 <p>Toxoplasmosis is intracellular pathogen, caused by the protozoan parasite, belong to the phylum Apicomplexa. The present research aimed to determine the sero-prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii among patients attending in Kassala hospital. Blood samples were collected in blood container by using sterile syringes (300), 5 ml of venous blood was drawn and required for the laboratory examination for Latex agglutination and ELISA techniques. high prevalence of T. gondii recorded (56.7%) for Latex Agglutination technique. Age-groups (18-40) showed higher rate of infection 62.2%. Statistical analysis verified no variation according to the gender and contact with cats (P &gt; 0.05). high prevalence calculated, for those eating undercooked meat, drinking row milk, 67.1%, 65.5% respectively. Fainaly the present study recommended to Implantation of health education program, Toxoplasmosis should be checked before donating blood and Improvement of the standard of hygienic, sanitary and disease control.</p> Khadega suleiman Azzam Afifi Copyright (c) 2021-08-17 2021-08-17 7 69 84 10.52981/jfst.vi7.956 Fungal Contamination of Some Medicinal Plant Materials Sold at Omdurman Local Market, Khartoum State, Central Sudan <p>Plants have long been used as herbal medicines in many countries. However, microbial contamination of these medicines may affect human health. In the present study fifteen medicinal plants namely, <em>Acacia nilotica ssp. nilotica, Trigonella foenum-greacum</em>, <em>Nigella sativa</em>, <em>Hyphaene thebaica</em>, <em>Nauclea latifola</em>, <em>Cyperus rotundus</em>, <em>Cymbopogon schoenanthus </em>spp, <em>proximus</em>, <em>Artemisia herba-alb</em>, <em>Cassia acutifolia</em>, <em>Solenostemma argel</em>, <em>Tamarindus indica</em>, <em>Ziziphus spina-christi, Lepidium sativum</em>, <em>Foeniculum vulgare </em>and <em>Coriandrum sativum </em>were evaluated for their fungal contamination. The pour plate method was used to cultivate serially diluted portions of the medicinal plant material investigated. The colonies of fungi were identified morphologically according to form and pigment. They were observed microscopically through Lactophenol cotton bluestaining. The identified fungal isolates were consist of three fungal species, the most dominant fungi were <em>Aspergillus nigar </em>and<em> Aspergillus flavus. Penicillium ssp </em>is least one. The total fungal&nbsp; counts ranged from 00x10<sup>1 </sup>&nbsp;cfu/g (<em>Cymbopogon schoenanthus spp.proximus</em>,<em> Trigonella foenum-greacum, Artemisia herba alb, Lepidium satinum , Nigella sativa Cassia acutifolia&nbsp; </em>and<em> Naucle latifola</em>) to 11x10<sup>5</sup>cfu/g (<em>Cyperus rotundus</em>).. <em>&nbsp;</em>The highest total fungal load was found in <em>Cyperus rotundus</em> The levels of contamination varied greatly between the commercially available plant samples investigated.</p> Ehsan Musa Ewad EL-Kareem Hatil Hashim EL-Kamali Ahlam Salih Eltahir Hanan Ibrahim Mudawi Copyright (c) 2021-08-17 2021-08-17 7 85 92 10.52981/jfst.vi7.959 The Relationship between Metrological Parameters and Total Airborne Pollen Concentration in Atmosphere of Khartoum City During 2018 <p>This study is aimed to find out the effect and relationship between metrological parameters and total airborne pollen concentration in atmosphere in Khartoum city (Sudan). For that purpose, one-year data during 2018 of Total Airborne Pollen Concentration (TAPC) and meteorological parameters is utilized. Pollen concentration in the atmosphere was measured using Non-volumetric air sampler (Vertical cylinder spore trap). The descriptive statistic of TAPC and metrological parameters were presented. The result showed TAPC in 2018 reached to their maximum in August (37.5/m³), and the minimum in June (14/ m³). Analysis of the relationship between TAPC and meteorological parameters showed that variations in the pollen concentrations were mainly affected by maximum temperature. In addition, there were substantial differences in these relationships in different seasons. In Autumn, they were affected by the rain falls, maximum temperature and relative humidity; in summer, they were affected by maximum temperature; and in winter, they were affected by maximum temperature and relative humidity. Temperature, rain falls and relative humidity promote plant growth and blooming. As well as the results show wind direction was significant on seasonally TAPC especially in Autumn. The results found significant effects between the meteorological on TAPC, were it is showed 72 % are affecting on TAPC refer to meteorological parameters and 28 % refer to another factors.</p> Ejlal Sanad Mohammed Motwaly A.G. Elfadil Ahmed Mudawi Musa Copyright (c) 2021-08-17 2021-08-17 7 93 109 10.52981/jfst.vi7.961 Antioxidant activity of some Sudanese medicinal plant methanolic extracts <p>Traditional medicines play a very important role in the health care system in Sudan, <em>Cadaba glandulosa , Aristolochia bracteolata&nbsp; , Boscia senegalensis&nbsp; </em>and<em> Nymphaea lotus</em> are used in folkloric medicine to remedy some diseases. The methanolic extracts were used to evaluate antioxidant activity to the&nbsp; plants which were mentioned above. <em>B senglensis</em> was shown high activity equal to 87+1, while <em>N. lotus</em> was represented 82+2.&nbsp; Also <em>A. bracteolate </em>and <em>C. glandulosa</em> exhibited moderate values (54+0.03 and 41+0.04 respectively).</p> Manal A Ibrahim Safa G Ali Mahasin M Hussien Copyright (c) 2021-08-17 2021-08-17 7 110 116 10.52981/jfst.vi7.963 Analysis of Physico-chemical and Macro Element Concentration in Soils of Six Farmlands in Khartoum State, Central Sudan <p>Analysis of some selected physico-chemical parameters and macro-elements in soil samples collected from six farmlands (Agricultural schemes) in Khartoum State, Central Sudan : EL-Gomouya, Wad Ramli, Umm Arda, EL-Waha, EL-Silait and EL-Shaab schemes) were carried out The soil characterization was carried out for parameters like pH, organic carbon, moisture content, electrical conductivity , soil texture , potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium and phosphorus in the soil samples. The physicochemical analysis of soil samples understudy showed different concentrations of various parameters at different farmlands. Correlation analysis was employed to examine the relationship between the various parameters in the soil samples.</p> Sulieman Ahmed Gasim El Said Hatil Hashim EL-Kamali Sara Ahmed Saad Copyright (c) 2021-08-17 2021-08-17 7 117 124 10.52981/jfst.vi7.964 Long-range proton–carbon coupling constants for the determination of the stereochemical structure of organic compounds. <p>A new methods for elucidating stereochemistry of organic compounds was developed on the basis of long-range proton–carbon coupling constants (2,3JC,H) and interpreting spin-coupling constants (3JH,H). Reaction of compound containing pyrin ring with nucleophile reagent was done to open the ring. HSQC-TOCSY experiments one of the new NMR spectroscopy method used to measure this values of spin-coupling constants and elucidating the stereochemistry of the product.</p> Anwar, E. M. Noreljaleel Copyright (c) 2021-08-17 2021-08-17 7 125 131 10.52981/jfst.vi7.965 Biochemical changes in serum liver enzymes and total bilirubin cholelithiasis in hospitals in Khartoum <p>Cholelithiasis is one of the most prevalent diseases in gastroenterology, and it is a major public health problem in all developed countries. It has the most common in patient diagnosis among gastrointestinal and liver diseases and it accounts for many hospital admissions and surgical interventions in our local population. Gallstone &nbsp;disease also known to cause &nbsp;liver disease and defragment of its enzymes. Our main objective in the this study was to investigate&nbsp;&nbsp; the biochemical changes in serum liver enzyme and total bilirubin associated with Cholelithiasis. High incidence of cholelithiasis was more prominent among females 127(84.7%) relatives to males 23(15.3%), giving males to females ratio (1:5.5).The most affected age groups were 41-50 years .The majority of patients 62(41.33%) were obese and their body mass index (BMI) 25-30. The most common type of stones was Mixed stones (MS). Serum liver enzymes level of patients was found to be nearly within the same range, whereas their serum total bilirubin significantly increased in comparison with the control group. Furthermore, it is found that there was significant difference between males and females in ALT and AST in patients group. The serum total bilirubin of the patients with pigment stones was significantly elevated. Cholelithiasis is an important cause to significant pathological changes in serum total bilirubin&nbsp;&nbsp; and slight changes in liver enzymes.</p> Ibtisam Bruai Mustafa Copyright (c) 2021-08-17 2021-08-17 7 132 144 10.52981/jfst.vi7.966 Chemical Profile and Proximate and Elemental Composition of Ocimum basilicum Grown in Sudan <p>This study aimed to investigate the chemical profile, proximate and elemental composition of leaves and flowers of Ocimum basilicum grown in Sudan. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) was used for the analysis of the n-hexane extracts. Results showed that fifty six compounds were detected from the aerial part of the plant. Most of the identified compounds were terpenoids. Monoterpenes represented 47.19%of the n-hexane extract while sesquiterpenes were 32.51%. The major compounds were linalool (18.16%), methyl eugenol (16.18%), α-terpineol (10.02%), and Eucalyptol (8.51%) respectively. Chemical proximate analysis was carried using standard analytical methods. Results showed that the plant was rich in moisture content, total ash, crude fiber and fiber protein. Elemental analysis was performed using the Atomic Absorption Spectrometer and flame emission for the detection of Ca, Fe, Na, K, Mg, Pb and Mn. Results demonstrated higher calcium and potassium contents. In conclusion O. basilicum grown in Sudan was a good source of food and therapeutic agents which could be of use in food and pharmaceutical industries.</p> Ahmed Ali Mustafa Hatil Hashim El-Kamali Adam Mohammed Ahmed Copyright (c) 2021-08-20 2021-08-20 7 145 154 10.52981/jfst.vi7.967 Phytochemical Analysis and Traditional uses of two locally available Ficus species (beneghalensis and sycomorus) <p>Two <em>Ficus</em> species that are commonly used in Sudanese Traditional Medicine for the management of various ailments were screened for their phytochemical groups using chemical reagent and Thin Layer Chromatography. Qualitative phytochemical tests were used to detect the presence of flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids, phenolic compounds and anthraquinones. Six compounds from F. benegalensis and seven from F. sycomorus quenching were reported from the various parts of these two plants. However , more number of compounds were found in the leaves. The data generated from this study have provided the chemical basis for wide use of <em>F. sycomorus</em> as therapeutic agent for treating various ailments. However, there is need to further carry out advanced hyphenated spectroscopic studies in order to elucidate the structure of these compounds. Furthermore, this data may be handy in probing of biochemistry of this plant in the future.</p> Sulieman Ahmed Gasim El Said Hatil Hashim EL-Kamali Yousra Omer EL-Desogi Copyright (c) 2021-08-20 2021-08-20 7 155 162 10.52981/jfst.vi7.1074