Assessment of Albuminuria, Estimated-Glomerular Filtration Rate And Uric Acid As Markers For Chronic Kidney Disease among Family Members of Sudanese Renal Failure Patients On Hemodialysis

  • Abozaid M Hamid
Keywords: Chronic kidney disease, Albuminuria, ACR, eGFR, FDRs, Uric acid


Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global public health problem that increased rapidly throughout the world, and it was recommended that it should be discovered earlier especially among high risk population.

Objective: To assess albuminuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and uric acid as markers for CKD among first degree relatives (FDRs) of hemodialysis patients.

Materials and methods: This is an analytical, case control study conducted at Khartoum state during May 2015 to May 2018, targeting 135 FDRs of end stage renal disease (ESRD) Sudanese patients on hemodialysis and other 161 healthy individuals serving as control group. Their plasma was prepared and analyzed for creatinine, uric acid, calcium, phosphate, and alkaline phosphatase. Also spot random urine sample was collected and analyzed for creatinine and micro albumin, from which albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) was calculated. The plasma parameters were analyzed by Mendray BS 200 auto analyzer, while urine parameters were analyzed by using Cobas auto analyzer.

Results: The mean levels of ACR and urine micro albumin were significantly increased while the mean levels of e-GFR and urine creatinine were significantly reduced in FDRs when compared to control group (The means ± SD were: 10 ± 4.4, 123.1 ± 68.2, 93.1 ± 25.6 and153.3 ± 115.3 versus 0.92±0.10, 14.9±2.05, 99.4±22.5 and 190.3±108.8, the p values were: 0.024, 0.001, 0.027 and 0.005 respectively). But there were no significant differences between means levels of calcium, phosphorus, uric acid and alkaline phosphatase when compared in FDRs versus control group. The correlation analysis showed significant positive correlation of serum uric acid with serum creatinine(r= 0.587, P value = 0.000).

Conclusion: Albuminuria which was detected by ACR was significantly increased among FDRs of hemodialysis patients, while the eGFR was reduced, hence they are prone to develop CKD.


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