Assessment of Serum Magnesium, Calcium and Phosphate in Sudanese Cigarette Smokers
Background: Smoking is one of the major community environmental pollution in the world, Cigarette smoking is a worldwide major cause of preventable morbidity and mortality. The minerals are very essential for human skeleton and many physiological mechanisms and cofactors of metabolic pathway in the human body.
Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess the level of serum magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) in Sudanese cigarette smokers.
Methodology: This case-control study included 50 adult male of a current smoking status; the ages were matched, and the age ranged between 15 and 80 years and their mean 35 years. Fifty non-smokers were considered as control group. We evaluated the effect of cigarette smoking on serum Mg, Ca and P. Three ml of fasting venous blood were collected from each volunteer; serum obtained and analyzed using spectrophotometers (URIT-810), and measured using end point method (enzymatic method).
Results: Our study revealed a significant (p value=0.001) increase in the levels of serum phosphate, while the serum calcium significantly (p value=0.040) decreased, among smokers compared to controls, whereas the mean level of serum magnesium and calcium/ phosphate ratio did not differ. Their ages positively correlated to serum phosphate (r=0.345, p=0.023). Moreover, the duration of smoking/ years negatively correlated to serum Ca (r=-0.367, p=0.034) and positively correlated to serum phosphate (r=0.305, p=0.044), and did not effect serum magnesium. There was no correlation between the numbers of cigarette/day and serum parameters in our study.
Conclusion: It was found that there was an increase in serum phosphate and a decrease in serum calcium, while the serum phosphate correlated with the age. The duration of smoking correlated with serum calcium and phosphate respectively.
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