Sudan Medical Laboratory Journal <p style="text-align: justify;">Sudan Journal of Medical Laboratory Sciences for Medical Laboratory Research. SMLJ, is an open-access, peer-reviewed, scientific periodical issued by the Faculty of Medical laboratory Sciences of the Omdurman Islamic University. We, despite the title, do not confine ourselves, only, to the laboratory sciences and endeavor to cover all the advances in the diverse medical fields. Our target is the dissemination of recent information, and eventually, knowledge that contributes to the health and well-being of the human through fresh scientific research efforts.</p> Omdurman Islamic University en-US Sudan Medical Laboratory Journal 1858-6147 Effect of Using Different Levels of Moringa Oleifera Leaf Meal on Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Broilers <p>The Present study was carried out to determine the effect of feeding graded levels of <em>Moringa oleifera</em> leaf meal on performance and caracas characteristics of broiler chicks. Two hundred day-old unsexed Ross chicks were allotted randomly to four treatments in a 4x5x10 arrangement. Four experimental broiler rations, (NRC, 1994), semi-isocaloric&nbsp; semi- isonitrogenous&nbsp; were formulated with ascending levels of&nbsp; <em>Moringa oleifera</em> leaf meal, (MOLM), replacing performed total protein content of the diet percentagewise as 0, 2.5, 5 and 7.5% and designated as A, B, C and D respectively with ration A serving as control. Rations were allotted randomly to the four treatments. Experimental feeding was continued for 45 days on <em>ad libitum</em> basis, allowing for an initial adaptation feeding period on the control diet for one week. First three days of the adaptation week utilized the pre-starter ration. Experimental diets were then fed each to its respective group till the end of the experiment feeding period.</p> <p>Feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were recorded on weekly basis. At the end of the experiment, 10 birds from each group were selected randomly and slaughtered for carcass characteristics and dressing percentage.</p> <p>Live weight, weight gain, FCR, weight after cleaning and dressing percentage all showed significant differences (p&lt;0.05) except (p&gt;0.05) for the daily and total voluntary feed intake and protein intake. In all carcass cuts, no significant differences (p&gt;0.05) were found except (p&lt;0.05) in the left side and neck.</p> <p>The present study indicated that supplementation of MOLM to broiler diets had positive effects on body weight gain, dressing percentage and carcass cuts when used up to 7.5% of the ration.</p> Elsiddig, A. E.A ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 6 2 1 15 Assessment of Serum Chromium and Zinc Levels in Patients with Chronic Renal Failure <p><strong>Background:</strong> Chromium (Cr) and Zinc (zn) are very important in human nutrition. Many researchers reported that serum chromium and serum zinc are impaired in patients with chronic renal failure,(CRF).</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> This study aimed to assess chromium and Zinc in chronic renal failure patients.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> This study was conducted at Khartoum state during November 2017 to May 2018.The study enrolled 35 patients with CRF and 40 healthy controls. Serum Chromium and Zinc levels were estimated using Atomic absorption spectrophotometry, (AAS), technique.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> the current study demonstrated a highly significant a lower level of Cr in patients in contrast to healthy controls, (0.032 versus 0.147 mg/dl; respectively, P&lt;0.001), and also of Zn level in patients as compared to healthy controls (0.165 versus 0.564 mg/dl; respectively, P&lt;0.001). In contrary, the level of both Cr and Zn were significantly higher after dialysis as compared to their levels, before dialysis (0.137 versus 0.032 mg/dl; respectively, P&lt;0.001) and (0.253 versus 0.165 mg/dl; respectively, P&lt;0.001) for Cr and Zn, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The present study revealed that, Zn and Cr levels decreased in CRF patients and increased after dialysis.</p> Fayza A Rahamtalla ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 6 2 15 24 Assessment of Albuminuria, Estimated-Glomerular Filtration Rate And Uric Acid As Markers For Chronic Kidney Disease among Family Members of Sudanese Renal Failure Patients On Hemodialysis <p><strong>Background:</strong> Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global public health problem that increased rapidly throughout the world, and it was recommended that it should be discovered earlier especially among high risk population.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To assess albuminuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and uric acid as markers for CKD among first degree relatives (FDRs) of hemodialysis patients.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods:</strong> This is an analytical, case control study conducted at Khartoum state during May 2015 to May 2018, targeting 135 FDRs of end stage renal disease (ESRD) Sudanese patients on hemodialysis and other 161 healthy individuals serving as control group. Their plasma was prepared and analyzed for creatinine, uric acid, calcium, phosphate, and alkaline phosphatase. Also spot random urine sample was collected and analyzed for creatinine and micro albumin, from which albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) was calculated. The plasma parameters were analyzed by Mendray BS 200 auto analyzer, while urine parameters were analyzed by using Cobas auto analyzer.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean levels of ACR and urine micro albumin were significantly increased while the mean levels of e-GFR and urine creatinine were significantly reduced in FDRs when compared to control group (The means ± SD were: 10 ± 4.4, 123.1 ± 68.2, 93.1 ± 25.6 and153.3 ± 115.3 versus 0.92±0.10, 14.9±2.05, 99.4±22.5 and 190.3±108.8, the p values were: 0.024, 0.001, 0.027 and 0.005 respectively). But there were no significant differences between means levels of calcium, phosphorus, uric acid and alkaline phosphatase when compared in FDRs versus control group. The correlation analysis showed significant positive correlation of serum uric acid with serum creatinine(r= 0.587, P value = 0.000).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Albuminuria which was detected by ACR was significantly increased among FDRs of hemodialysis patients, while the eGFR was reduced, hence they are prone to develop CKD.</p> Abozaid M Hamid ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 6 2 25 39 Evaluation of Iron Profile in Sudanese Patients with Cardiovascular Disorders under Multiple Transfusions <p><strong>Background</strong><strong>: </strong>iron overload is the most common complication in patients who revived multiple red blood transfusions to correct the anemia.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong> this study aimed to evaluate the iron profile (serum iron, ferritin, total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and transferrin saturation percentage) in Sudanese patients with cardiovascular disorders, who revived multiple red blood transfusions.</p> <p><strong>Material and methods</strong> this was a case control study conducted during August 2015, in Alneelain University, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Science. A total of 100 participants were enrolled in this study, 60 were Sudanese patients diagnosed with cardiovascular disorders and who received multiple blood transfusions at Alshaab Teaching Hospital Khartoum, Sudan; their mean age was (50.6<u>+</u>12.7) years, designated as a patient’s group. Other 40 subjects were normal healthy who received no blood transfusions as control group; their mean age was 45.5<u>+</u>11.4 years. Venous blood was collected from all participants, and then the serum was prepared from clotted blood. The iron profile (serum ferritin, serum iron and total iron binding capacity) was carried out using automated chemical analyzer (MINDRAY BS 200-China).Data were analyzed employing statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 20. The p value less than 0.05 was considered significant.</p> <p><strong>Result </strong>this study showed that the serum iron and serum ferritin were statistically significantly higher while the TIBC and transferrin saturation percentage were statistically significantly lower in cardiovascular patients who received regular blood cell, compared with those normal ho received regular packed cell with <em>p value</em> (0.01,0.04,0.04 and 0.04) respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong> iron overload was present in Sudanese cardiovascular patients who received no multiple blood transfusion compared to those normal who received no blood cell.</p> Salma Yassin Eltayeb ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 6 2 40 50 Determination of HCV genotypes and viral loads in chronic hepatic Sudanese infected patients <p><strong>Background.</strong> Knowledge of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes is significant for arranging treatment regimes. Quantitative HCV RNA testing provides prognostic data useful in monitoring the efficacy of antiviral therapy.</p> <p><strong>Methods. </strong>A total of 1203 serum samples were collected from individuals attending out-patients units at Khartoum State and Gezera State. The study population comprises two groups. Blood donors study groups (n= 600) and chronic hepatic patients during the course of HCV infection (n= 603). Serum samples were screened using enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA) (Biokit, A.S. Spain<sup>®</sup><sup>)</sup>.HCV positive samples (n=100) were quantified by HCV Real-TM Quant SC (Sacace Biotechnologies Italy®).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Hundred HCV seropositive samples were subjected to genotyping and quantitative analysis of these samples using RT- PCR, HCV genotype 4 was the predominant genotype (92%) followed by genotype 2 (4%), Genotype 1 (2%) and 3 (2%) in different groups. The average viral load of the patients infected with genotype 4 was higher than an average viral load of the patients infected with genotypes 1,2 and 3.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>The present study highlighted that genotype 4 is the predominant genotype in Sudanese hepatic patients followed by genotype 2. The severity of liver disease was more among genotype 4 patients as assessed by a higher viral load.</p> Mohammed E. H. Ournasseir ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 6 2 51 61 Human T-lymphotropic Virus Type 1/2 In Renal Transplant Recipients and Hemodialysis Patients in Khartoum state <p><strong>Background:</strong> The human T-lymphotropic virus or human T-cell leukemia-lymphoma virus (HTLV) is one of human retroviruses family. There are numerous sorts of HTLV; The human T lymphocyte virus 1 (HTLV-1) is a kind of HTLV that can be a reason for some maladies, for example, HTLV-1 related myelopathy (HAM) and adult T-cell leukemia, (ATL). HTLV-2 is another kin-d of HTLV however it isn't care for HTLV-1 it is less pathogenesis. Patients with hemodialysis powerless to viral contamination since some infections like HTLV can be transmitted by blood; additionally patients with renal transplantation are defenseless to viral diseases because of their immune compromised background.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> This study aims to provide data about prevalence of (HTLV1/2) among renal transplant recipients and hemodialysis in Khartoum State.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods:</strong> A total of 100 patients, 50 patients had renal transplantation and the other 50 patients on hemodialysis. Blood samples were obtained to measure HTLV type 1/2 antibodies using Enzyme-linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA). The study was done in the period from June to November 2017 in Khartoum state. And SPSS 20 software and Microsoft Excel were used for the statistical analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study showed among hemodialysis patients, 2 out of 50 (4%) were seropositive &nbsp;for HTLV1\2, IgG antibodies and 48 (96%) of the cases were sero-negative.&nbsp; Also showed among renal transplant recipients all of them were sero-negative for HTLV1\2 IgG antibodies. The percentage of male and female in the hemodialysis patients was 62.0 % and 38.0 % respectively and in renal transplantation patients was 76.0 % and 24.0 % respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The human T-lymphotropic virus 1/2 seropositive was found among hemodialysis patients, and the HTLV1/2 sero-negative was found in renal transplant recipients in Khartoum, Sudan. Thus the prevalence of HTLV 1/2 in a large sample size in Sudan should be conducted.</p> Amira A. Majzoub ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 6 2 62 70 Evaluation of Liver Function Tests among Sudanese Malaria Patients <p><strong>Background:</strong> Malaria is a major public health problem in tropical areas. It is responsible for infecting 300-500 million people and 1-3 million deaths annually. The liver takes part in malaria parasite live cycle, this leads to the destruction of liver cells and leads to liver function tests abnormalities.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To assess liver function tests in Sudanese adult patients infected with malaria parasite compared with a healthy control group.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>In a case-control study, 150 malaria patients were recruited to assess liver function tests compared to another 50 healthy people as control group.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study showed that malaria-infected patients have significant elevation in total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Tests also show a significant decrease in albumin level, whereas there is no significant difference in total protein levels between malaria patients and control group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> malaria infection affects liver parameters, for it increases levels of direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, total bilirubin, AST, ALT, and LDH also decrease the level of albumin but the level of total protein is not affected.</p> AbdElkarim A. Abdrabo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 6 2 71 80 Assessment of Serum Magnesium, Calcium and Phosphate in Sudanese Cigarette Smokers <p><strong>Background: </strong>Smoking is one of the major community environmental pollution in the world, Cigarette smoking is a worldwide major cause of preventable morbidity and mortality. The minerals are very essential for human skeleton and many physiological mechanisms and cofactors of metabolic pathway in the human body.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> &nbsp;The purpose of this study was to assess the level of serum magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) in Sudanese cigarette smokers.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>This case-control study included 50 adult male of a current smoking status; the ages were matched, and the age ranged between 15 and 80 years and their mean 35 years. Fifty non-smokers were considered as control group. We evaluated the effect of cigarette smoking on serum Mg, Ca and P. Three ml of fasting venous blood were collected from each volunteer; serum obtained and analyzed using spectrophotometers (URIT-810), and measured using end point method (enzymatic method).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Our study revealed a significant (<em>p value</em>=0.001) increase in the levels of serum phosphate, while the serum calcium significantly (<em>p value</em>=0.040) decreased, among smokers compared to controls, whereas the mean level of serum magnesium and calcium/ phosphate ratio did not differ. Their ages positively correlated to serum phosphate (r=0.345, p=0.023). Moreover, the duration of smoking/ years negatively correlated to serum Ca (r=-0.367, p=0.034) and positively correlated to serum phosphate (r=0.305, p=0.044), and did not effect serum magnesium. There was no correlation between the numbers of cigarette/day and serum parameters in our study.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;Conclusion: </strong>It was found that there was an increase in serum phosphate and a decrease in serum calcium, while the serum phosphate correlated with the age. The duration of smoking correlated with serum calcium and phosphate respectively.</p> Gad Allah Modawe ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 6 2 80 93 Frequency of Euthyroidism among Patients with Goiter in Algeneina Town, West Darfur State <p>This is a cross sectional hospital-based study carried out to measure the levels of thyroid hormones (T3, T4 and TSH) in Sudanese patients with goiter in west Darfur state (Algeniena City) during the period from April to July 2011.</p> <p>&nbsp;Eighty Sudanese patients with goiter; including 20 males (aged 10-65years), and 70 females (aged 10-65years), were enrolled in this study; also 40 healthy individuals to serve as control group; including 20 males (aged 10-65 years), and 20 females (aged 10-65 years).</p> <p>Five ml of venous blood were collected from each participant to obtain serum. T3, T4 and TSH levels were measured by Enzyme linked immuno assay (ELISA) technique.</p> <p>Statistical analysis revealed that 64 samples (82.5%) were found to have normal thyroid hormones levels (euthyroid), while 6 samples (7.5%) were found to have hyperthyroidism, 4 samples (5.0%) were found to have hypothyroidism, and four samples (5.0%) had high TSH and normal T3 and T4 .</p> <p>Results showed that T4 and TSH were significantly decreased in patients with goiter compared with control group, (p value 0.00) and (p value 0.01) respectively. Unlike T3 since no difference was found between patients and the healthy control group (p value 0.76).</p> <p>This study concluded that the frequency of goiter was high among people in west Darfur state (Algeneina city) with higher percentage in females than males. Also, the frequency of goitrous euothyroidism was higher compared to both, goitrous hyperthyroidism and goitrous hypothyroidism.</p> Alsafat Mohammed Ibrahim ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 6 2 94 106